With a diameter of only 650 km less than that of Earth, Venus is the planet with the size more similar to ours and is the second closest to the Sun is less than 40 million kilometers from Earth, the closest to us .
And 'the brightest celestial body after the Sun and Moon, both for its proximity to that the fact of being surrounded by bright clouds: it is visible in the morning and evening, depending on its location in the west or east of the Sun .
It 's always a conspicuous object and can reach magnitude -4.7 at its maximum brightness, and shows during its orbit, a series of phases, like the moon.
With binoculars you can observe the crescent-lit, visible when it is closest to the Earth while you need a small telescope to follow the whole cycle: a mid-stage, with 75 magnifications, Venus has the same angular size of the moon, but as it is immersed in a thick coat is impossible to observe its surface.
The clouds show some structures in "V" and those above the poles appear brighter: Venus completes a cycle of phases every orbit around our star, when it is beyond the Sun is then the maximum distance the Earth Cone, is a disk fully hidden from the solar flare.
Approaching us shows in the evening sky with ever-increasing size, and immediately after the maximum eastern elongation part of the illuminated disk is reduced to less than half.
Venus said, is immersed in clouds composed of sulfuric acid, high 50-70 km above its surface, while beneath them the atmosphere consists almost entirely of carbon dioxide.
At the surface the pressure is elevated about 90 times greater than the Earth, the temperature reaches 465 ° C due to the greenhouse effect while the winds to the surface are of low intensity, blowing a few kilometers per hour, however, reach above the clouds the hundreds of kilometers per hour, causing the rotation of the latter over the planet in four days, a time much less than the rotation of Venus on its axis, which lasts for 243 days.
As the planet, even the clouds rotate from east to west, the sun's visible light penetrates through the atmosphere of a planet, raggiungendone the surface and heating it, this, in turn, releases heat in the form of invisible infrared radiation: however, some gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, they keep the infrared radiation, resulting in an increase in temperature.
This effect is called greenhouse effect, and on Earth, where the atmosphere is composed of a small amount of carbon dioxide, this process can raise the temperature of the planet a maximum of 35 ° C, instead, on Venus, where the atmosphere is consists predominantly of this gas, the temperature increase is of the order of 500 ° C, bringing the average temperature to 464 ° C, a value that unlike the Earth varies only a few degrees between the equator and poles.
In mythology this planet became the symbol of the goddess of sensual love, who ruled over the emotions, beauty, comfort, femininity related to youth and the desire to find a husband.
His zodiac signs are Taurus and Libra, which have different aspects, the same energy on the planet Venus.