Native American Indian tribe Apache
The first settlers arrived in South-West Atapascani around the 850, they were nomadic hunters and gatherers of fodder in what's now western Canada. Propagated to all the arid plateaus of the Southwest, forming several clusters called Apache by the other tribes of the region, perhaps the name Apache means "enemy". After settling on new lands Apaches continued to scour the area raiding people for food and slaves. As they were proud fighters and teachers experienced in surviving in the wilderness, were feared by the other inhabitants of the South-West Indian pueblo, Spanish, Mexicans and Americans, who in fact were all subject .. Their presence and their harassment prevented any expansion of Spanish and Mexican North. A few years after the U.S. annexed the South-West (1848), became the worst enemies for the occupants and Anglo-Americans were the most stubborn of all the Indian warriors. General George Crook, who led military campaigns against the Apache Indians and other Indians called them "tigers of the human species."
The wrong interpretation of a border incident by the U.S. army, changed the way they act and was the basis of 35 years of wars between the Americans and Apache tribes.
In 1861 a landowner, John Ward, wrongfully suspected Cochise, chief of the tribe of Apache Chiracahua, had kidnapped his children and his cattle stolen. He denounced him to the garrison at Fort Buchanan. A place of Lieutenant George Bascom, organized and headed a battalion of Apache Pass through the mountains of Chiracahua, the center of the territory of the Apache Chiracahua. Bascom invited Cochise to a meeting. On February 4, 1861 Cochise, who suspected no treachery, came with his brother, two grandchildren, a woman and two children to the camp of the army. Bascom wasted no time accusing Cochise of the raid. These defenses that it was not, saying that perhaps could have been the White Mountains of Apache, the Coyotero, and offered his help to find abducted children. As his men surrounded the tent, told the boss that he would have stopped. Cochise with his knife he cut the tent and fled Bascom kept while the other Apache hostages. Cochise, a group of warriors, began to ambush along the Butterfield Trail to get back their hostages, killing Mexicans and the Americans left alive. Several negotiations between Cochise and Bascom failed. For Chiracahua later joined the Apaches of the White Mountains, the Apache Mimbreno. They concentrated their efforts in attacks on stagecoaches that passed along the trail. Bascom's men managed to capture three hostages, warriors of the White Mountains. Two companies of dragoons from Fort Breckinridge repulsed the insurgents Apache up in Mexico. These, however, before retiring, killed all the hostages. In retaliation, Bascom hanged male hostages including Cochise's brother. They face the Apaches emerged from their mountain hideouts and killed 150 in two months between whites and Mexicans.
Ten years after the events occurred between the Indians and Bascom, the tribe of Apache Indians resumed their raids against the settlers. Aravaipa Apaches with their leader Eskiminzin who wanted peace, they emigrated to Camp Grant, army outpost in the desert north of Tucson, Arizona in the current. In 1833 Arizona became an independent territory and the Indians gave up their arms to Lieutenant Royal Whitman and his garrison. But the citizens of Tucson also the Apaches hated and feared them even though peaceful, so they organized a troop of vigilantes formed by about 150 whites, Mexicans and Papago Indian mercenaries. On the morning of April 30, 1871 he marched into the camp of Aravaipa, and while they slept, they massacred 86 of 150, including women and children. Of the surviving women were raped and children carried off into slavery.
President Ulysses Grant, who had set his "Politics of Postwar Peace" to prevent these massacres, he felt really hurt and sent a peace commission to Arizona headed by the General Oliver Howard and Vincent Coyler, with orders to establish a system of reservations for the Apaches. Until the autumn of 1872 the Commission instituted five refueling stations, including four in Arizona and one in New Mexico, and contacted many tribes of which the majority agreed with the transfer in return for regular meals and supplies. Howard also managed to arrange a meeting with Cochise Chiracahua of the same autumn, through the mediation of Thomas Jeffords, pioneer and backwoodsman. After 11 days of negotiations, the General recognized the demand for Cochise about a reserve to be established in the territory of Chiracahua at Apache Pass, with Jeffords as agent. Cochise Howard promised to keep order along the passage, kept his word and his people lived in peace until his death in 1874.
Meanwhile other Apache had continued to loot even though many of them also receive rations from the supply of places. In reaction to this fact, the military organized the Tonto Basin Campaign through the mountains and canyons that were south of the Mogollon Rim in Arizona and Central where many groups of warriors had taken refuge. The commander of this operation was General George Crook, recently moved into the Southwest after having earned a good reputation in the fight against the Indians in the War of the Snake in Idaho and Oregon. During the winter 1872-73 nine small mobile detachments were using Apache scouts recruited in the reserves, they traveled the length and breadth of the basin in search of Indians, and killed about 200. A unit led by captains William Brown and James Burns won a decisive battle at Salt River Canyon. In March 1873 another unit under Captain George Randall gained a decisive victory on the Turret Peack who broke the Indian resistance. The exhausted warriors and their families began to surrender in April. The following fall more than 6,000 Apache and Yavapai, including those listed above, they found themselves in the lists of reservations in Arizona and New Mexico.
For the Apache tribe of Indians living in the reserve proved to be a terrible ordeal: meager rations, boredom, illness. To escape poverty, many of them fled into the forests and wild lands to make up a life as hunters and gatherers, raiding and looting. To better control the tribes and open at the same time as the settlement area of the whites, in 1875 the officers ordered the transfer of all Apaches west of the Rio
Large reserves in San Carlos on the Gila River in Arizona. Some Apache still continued to resist. Two of their leaders were important, one for each of the two groups in the sixties they had shown more combative. Victorio, who grew up under the command of Mangas Colorado, Apache Mimbreno led her and others in an insurgency from 1877 to 1880 and Geronimo, who had struggled with Cochise, he gathered his tribe Chiracahua and other Indians, during the last important Indian war from 1881 to 1886, and his name became a rallying cry.
The two insurgencies are somigliarono: both began with a flight from San Carlos reserve, and brought the war in the mountains, canyons and deserts of the American Southwest and Mexico. Both undertook a large number of troops in both sides of the border, to get to victory through a process of attrition. In 1877 Victorio and 300 Indians fled from San Carlos, which were then only 80 warriors with him to the mountains. Victorio hoped stemare his people of the Mescalero reservation in the Ojo Caliente in western New Mexico, but the negotiations failed. In September 1879 his group of warriors attacked a camp of the cavalry, where the horses were gathered and killed the black guards. When the Mescaleros joined with them, Victorio led her to Mexico, then Texas and then returned to New Mexico and Arizona, making a number of attacks. Both the U.S. and Mexico mobilized their forces under the command with Colonel Edward Hatch, New Mexico, Colonel Benjamin Grierson in Texas and General Geronimo Trevino to Chiracahua in Mexico. American troops crossed the border regularly, given the political agreement among the nations united against the danger Apache. Victorio and his men managed to cope in a large number of clashes. In the fall of 1882, Victorio made the mistake of staying too long in a camp, thus giving way to 350 Mexican and Tarahumara Indians to attack. During the Battle of Tres Castillos took just two days, more than half of the Apache Indians were exterminated and others were taken prisoner. Victorio was found among the dead. It is not known if he died during the fight or whether, as the legend, committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy.
Meanwhile, Geronimo had lived with a tribe of nomadic and warlike Nednhi Sierra Madre, on the Mexican side of the border, after the dissolution of the reserve Indians Apache Pass in 1875. In 1876 he and some other Indians were arrested by the agent of San Carlos, and together with the people of Victorio were led back to Arizona. After a year Geronimo fled across the border again with Juh, chief Nednhi. Then, given the increasing activities of the Mexican troops, the young warrior returned to San Carlos. Geronimo was always considered and respected for his skill and cunning, but until then had not shown that it was tough as a tribal chief. In 1881 the army moved from Fort Apache to stop Nakaidoklini, an apache of the White Mountains had begun to preach a new religion, by which the dead warriors would return to liberate the Indian people by the white man. Battles broke out in Cibecue Creek and the Indian mystic was killed. Some of his followers attacked Fort Apache, but were repulsed.
The leaders of the San Carlos Chiracahua were worried and feared the growing number of troops. A month later, Cibecue Creek, Geronimo and Juh with Nachise (son of Cochise), Chato (Mescalero a) and 74 other Indians left San Carlos in Mexico. They returned in April of 1882 and during an incursion into the reserve, killed the chief of police and forced Loco and his Apache Mimbreno to accompany them to the south. Another battle took place at Big Dry Wash with the warriors of the White Mountains, embittered by the death of Nakaidoklini. The military, concerned at the increasing violence, gave the command to General George Crook, who was fighting against the Sioux. Crook organized a certain amount of mobile units with the Apache scouts recruited from the White Mountains, the only ones able to chase the Apaches. Obtained permission from Mexican authorities, Crook led units in the Sierra Madre in May 1883.
They used mules instead of horses, because they were more suited to the campaigns in the desert. Crook launched an attack on the camp of Chato, which was decisive, but at least gave the idea of establishing the military. In a follow up conference leaders agreed to return to the reserve. It took a year because they all come back. Geronimo was the last to return to the reserve and still be processed twice. In 1885 there was another stirring due to the prohibition of tiswin, an alcoholic drink used by Apache. Geronimo, Nachise, Nana and almost 150 followers fled once more from the reserve, but were relentlessly pursued by soldiers of Crook, until they agreed to parley in Canyon de los Embudos March 25, 1886. Crook demanded the unconditional surrender and imprisonment for two years in the east. Geronimo agreed, but, as he was escorted to Fort Bowie by Apache scouts, escaped again, along with 24 other Nachise and apache.
Crook took command as army chief and replaced him with General Nelson Miles, proved a great fighter against the Indians. To capture 24 fugitives apache, Miles fielded to 5,000 soldiers, but Geronimo, reached in Mexico, he escaped to the troops successfully. After a month and a half concealment, Geronimo agreed to surrender, but only to Miles. Shortly after Geronimo along with nearly 500 other apache, including those who had served as a scout in the army, were sent in chains to Fort Pickens in Pensacola, Florida. After a heavy confinement of one year, one quarter of them died of tuberculosis and other diseases.
Although Aravaipa they returned to San Carlos, Arizona citizens refused to receive and Chiracahua Geronimo. The Kiowa and Comanche Indian Territory offered to share their reserves with those who had fought for the freedom of Apache. They were taken to Fort Sill in 1894.Benché already become a legend for many whites in the United States, Geronimo got no more allowed to return to his estates. He died as a prisoner of war in 1909.